Marketing & Urban Scenes

  • Woman Carrying Goods, Bridgetown, Barbados, 1835

    Enlargement of section of engraving, showing woman carrying a basket and wooden tray on her head; several other people in background also heading goods, children on left, and a very common form of domestic pottery on left. Clothing styles of period are also apparent. Heading of goods very widespread among New World populations of African origin.
  • Selling Sweet Potatoes, Charleston, South Carolina, 1861

    Caption, selling sweet potatoes in Charleston; group of women street vendors with baskets of goods; children playing in background. An engraving taken from eye-witness sketch by the English artist, Eyre Crowe. The accompanying article notes that the vendors are slaves who must give a percentage of their profits to their owners. Also published in New York Illustrated News (March 9, 1861), vol. 3, p. 284.
  • Fish-Monger and His Dulcinea

    This image shows an enslaved man and woman who were both carrying their wares on their heads. Harper's Weekly provides no specific information on this illustration, but it appears to have been derived from a photograph taken by Jose Christiano de Freitas Henriques Junior, a Portuguese-born cameraman, who produced dozens of portraits of slaves in his Rio studio in the 1860s. For a copy of the original photograph and other details on Junior and his photographs of enslaved Brazilians, see Robert Levine, Faces of Brazilian Slavery: The Cartes de Visite of Christiano Junior, The Americas, vol. 47 (1990), pp. 127-159; particularly p. 147. Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization was an American political magazine based in New York City and published by Harper & Brothers from 1857 until 1916. It featured foreign and domestic news, fiction, essays on many subjects and humor, alongside illustrations. It covered the American Civil War extensively, including many illustrations of events from the war.
  • Parrot Vender

    This illustration shows a man selling parrots in Brazil. Harper's Weekly provides no specific information on this illustration, but it appears to have been derived from a photograph taken by Jose Christiano de Freitas Henriques Junior, a Portuguese-born cameraman, who produced dozens of portraits of slaves in his Rio studio in the 1860s. For a copy of the original photograph and other details on Junior and his photographs of enslaved Brazilians, see Robert Levine, Faces of Brazilian Slavery: The Cartes de Visite of Christiano Junior, The Americas, vol. 47 (1990), pp. 127-159; particularly p. 147. Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization was an American political magazine based in New York City and published by Harper & Brothers from 1857 until 1916. It featured foreign and domestic news, fiction, essays on many subjects and humor, alongside illustrations. It covered the American Civil War extensively, including many illustrations of events from the war.
  • Going to Market, Near Savannah, Georgia, 1875

    Men, women, and children carrying goods in baskets on their heads; house and ox cart in background. This scene could also fit into the ante-bellum period.
  • Tobacco Merchant, Brazil,1816-1831

    Caption, Marchand de Tabac (tobacco merchant) shown in his urban shop, selling wares to black customers, apparently prisoners of a sort; their guard is shown at the right talking to a woman carrying a baby. The engravings in this book were taken from drawings made by Debret during his residence in Brazil from 1816 to 1831. For watercolors by Debret of scenes in Brazil, some of which were incorporated into his Voyage Pittoresque, see Jean Baptiste Debret, Viagem Pitoresca e Historica ao Brasil (Editora Itatiaia Limitada, Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 1989; a reprint of the 1954 Paris edition, edited by R. De Castro Maya).
  • Free Women of Color and Marketing Activities, Brazil, 1816-1831

    Captions, (top), Negresses Libres, vivant de leur travail (free women of color selling various goods); (bottom), Negresses Marchandes, de Sonhos, Manoe, Aloa (Black women vendors of sonhos, manoe, aloa). Sonhos are a type of fritter/cruller or fried cake; manoe/manue is a type of cake made from corn flour, honey and other ingredients; and aloa/alua is a drink made from rice flour, toasted corn, or pineapple rinds (depending on region of Brazil), which are then fermented with sugar in clay jars. The engravings in this book were taken from drawings made by Debret during his residence in Brazil from 1816 to 1831. For watercolors by Debret of scenes in Brazil, some of which were incorporated into his Voyage Pittoresque, see Jean Baptiste Debret, Viagem Pitoresca e Historica ao Brasil (Editora Itatiaia Limitada, Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 1989; a reprint of the 1954 Paris edition, edited by R. De Castro Maya).
  • Marketplace, Antigua, West Indies, 1806

    A separately published print that was apparently not part of any larger work. Shows congested market scene, mostly blacks trading, but some whites wandering through the area. The print is titled Negroes Sunday Market at Antigua and it is dedicated to To His Excellency The Rt Honble Lord Lavington . . . Governor and General in Chief of the Leeward Caribbee Islands, &c. &c. &c. The Sunday market was an important institution throughout the British West Indies. The image shown here was photographed from a copy located in the National Library of Jamaica, Kingston (slide of print, courtesy of Jean Howson). A copy in color was viewed by Handler in the Barbados Government House (residence of the island's Governor General) in 1989, where it is captioned, A Negro Market in the West Indies in 1800, printed by Motte, 70 St. Martin's Lane; the Barbados copy also contains a manuscript inscription in a contemporary hand, from a drawing made in Antigua in 1800. Other copies of this print are held by the New York Historical Society, the Yale Center for British Art, and the National Maritime Museum (Greenwich, London); a good color reproduction of the NMM's copy is found in and D. Hamilton and R. Blyth, Representing Slavery: Art, Artifacts and Archives in the Collections of the National Maritime Museum (London, 2007), p. 57.
  • Marketplace, Falmouth, Jamaica, 1844

    Lithograph from a daguerreotype. Although in the post-emancipation period, the scene would not have been very different in the later slave period. (Slide of illustration provided by Jean Howson from a copy of the book held by the National Library of Jamaica.)
  • Marketplace, Lynchburg, Virginia, 1870s

    Captioned, The Old Market at Lynchburg, King describes his visit to the marketplace (pp. 554-555).
  • Poultry Vendor, New Orleans, 1873-74

    Caption: The French Market-The Hen Trader; shows a woman vendor with basket, holding a chicken, a girl by her side, and boy who has apparently purchased two chickens. Also published in Edward King, The Great South (Hartford, Conn., 1875), p. 49 who describes this scene on his visit to the market in New Orleans.
  • Market Women, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1830s

    Woman with basket of fruit on her head, baby carried on her back, African-style. For an analysis of Rugendas' drawings, as these were informed by his anti-slavery views, see Robert W. Slenes, African Abrahams, Lucretias and Men of Sorrows: Allegory and Allusion in the Brazilian Anti-slavery Lithographs (1827-1835) of Johann Moritz Rugendas (Slavery & Abolition, vol. 23 [2002], pp. 147-168).
  • Fish Seller, Bahia, Brazil, 1830s

    Caption, Negre et Negresse de Bahia, shows the clothing styles of the man and woman; the man is portrayed as a fish seller. For an analysis of Rugendas' drawings, as these were informed by his anti-slavery views, see Robert W. Slenes, African Abrahams, Lucretias and Men of Sorrows: Allegory and Allusion in the Brazilian Anti-slavery Lithographs (1827-1835) of Johann Moritz Rugendas (Slavery & Abolition, vol. 23 [2002], pp. 147-168).
  • Marketing and Shopkeeping, Recife, Brazil, 1830s

    Urban scene, showing variety of people engaged in selling goods(e.g., women with baskets of fruit); also some type of shop; blacks and whites. For an analysis of Rugendas' drawings, as these were informed by his anti-slavery views, see Robert W. Slenes, African Abrahams, Lucretias and Men of Sorrows: Allegory and Allusion in the Brazilian Anti-slavery Lithographs (1827-1835) of Johann Moritz Rugendas (Slavery & Abolition, vol. 23 [2002], pp. 147-168).
  • Urban Scene, U.S. South, 19th cent.

    Caption, Southern Street Scene; several people, including woman with bundle on her head and basket under arm.
  • Street Scene, St. Pierre, Martinique, 1826

    Caption, Une Rue de la Martinique (A Street in Martinique), shows a quarter in St. Pierre largely inhabited by female Negro and Mulatto (Negresses et Mulatresses) shopkeepers (p. 24). The woman in the foreground carries goods on her head; open door of a shop showing some of goods for sale, and on the doorstep pottery vessels, including a coal-pot used for cooking.
  • Marketplace, Mompox, Colombia, 1826

    Caption, Marchè de Mompox. The author visited Mompox, the largest inland Colombia town containing the largest proportion of free people of color (also inhabited by small numbers of black slaves and whites). He described its architecture and remarked on its busy and well-stocked markets. The main marketplace, shown in this engraving, was on the banks of the Magdalena river. The picture shows fish sellers in the canoes, farmers with their goods; at the foot of a tree a woman sells pottery and a man sells a turtle/tortoise. The author notes that all kinds of fruits, fresh meat, poultry and vegetables are abundant in this lively market (pp. 80-81).
  • Enslaved Fruit and Vegetable Vendor, Brazil, ca. 1641

    Titled, Molher Negra (a corruption, according to the translators, of the Portuguese mulher negra [black woman]). The woman, with a child at her side, is carrying a basket of fruit, wearing a short skirt, large hat, and bead necklace; a white clay pipe is tucked into her skirt. Wagener/Wagner was a German mercenary for the Dutch West India Company. In 1634, at the age of about 20, he went to northeastern Brazil where he stayed for 7 years. According to Wagener, Black women . . . are not spared having to work in an exhausting manner in the mills and cane-fields just as the men and children do. Some of them know Spanish and Dutch money well, so their owners send them into the streets to sell chickens, birds, dried fish and all form of magnificent fruit (vol. 2, p. 175). Wagener probably copied this painting from one done in 1641 by Albert Eckhout/Eeckhout, a Dutch painter who lived in Brazil from 1637 to 1644 (R. P. Brienen, Visions of Savage Paradise [Amsterdam, 2006] p. 130). The 1641 painting is in the National Museum of Denmark (Copenhagen), and is published in Antonio Riserio, Uma Historia de Cidade da Bahia (Salvador, Bahia, 2000), p. 116. See also image NW0318 on this website. (Thanks to Ana-Lucia Araujo for her help.)
  • Basket Seller, Brazil,1816-1831

    Caption, marchande de sestes [cestos *], paniers que si portent sur la tete (seller of sestes, baskets that are carried on the head); man carrying several baskets hanging from a pole.[ *In the errata section, Debret notes that caption on plate 13 should read Cestos, NOT Sestes.] The engravings in this book were taken from drawings made by Debret during his residence in Brazil from 1816 to 1831. For watercolors by Debret of scenes in Brazil, some of which were incorporated into his Voyage Pittoresque, see Jean Baptiste Debret, Viagem Pitoresca e Historica ao Brasil (Editora Itatiaia Limitada, Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 1989; a reprint of the 1954 Paris edition, edited by R. De Castro Maya).
  • Poultry Sellers, Brazil,1816-1831

    Caption, Negres vendeurs de volaille (black poultry sellers); two men showing their wares and ways of carrying them. The engravings in this book were taken from drawings made by Debret during his residence in Brazil from 1816 to 1831. For watercolors by Debret of scenes in Brazil, some of which were incorporated into his Voyage Pittoresque, see Jean Baptiste Debret, Viagem Pitoresca e Historica ao Brasil (Editora Itatiaia Limitada, Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 1989; a reprint of the 1954 Paris edition, edited by R. De Castro Maya).
  • Basket Tradesman, Brazil,1816-1831

    Caption, (left),marchand de sambouras (sambouras trader); (right), vendeur de palmito (vendor of palmito); sambouras/sambura is an Amerindian basket made of vines or a wild-growing cane that resembles bamboo. The engravings in this book were taken from drawings made by Debret during his residence in Brazil from 1816 to 1831. For watercolors by Debret of scenes in Brazil, some of which were incorporated into his Voyage Pittoresque, see Jean Baptiste Debret, Viagem Pitoresca e Historica ao Brasil (Editora Itatiaia Limitada, Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 1989; a reprint of the 1954 Paris edition, edited by R. De Castro Maya).
  • Coal and Vegetable Vendors, Brazil,1816-1831

    Caption, (left) negres vendeurs de charbon (sellers of coal); (right) vendeuses de fled [or pled] de Turquie (right); males carrying coal in baskets and women selling some type of vegetable; one of the women holds pipe in her mouth. The engravings in this book were taken from drawings made by Debret during his residence in Brazil from 1816 to 1831. For watercolors by Debret of scenes in Brazil, some of which were incorporated into his Voyage Pittoresque, see Jean Baptiste Debret, Viagem Pitoresca e Historica ao Brasil (Editora Itatiaia Limitada, Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 1989; a reprint of the 1954 Paris edition, edited by R. De Castro Maya).
  • Angu Sellers, Brazil,1816-1831

    Caption, negresses marchandes d'angou (Black women, sellers of angou). Angu is a dish made of corn, cassava or rice flour, with water and salt; illustration shows women ladeling it out from large cooking cauldrons. The engravings in this book were taken from drawings made by Debret during his residence in Brazil from 1816 to 1831. For watercolors by Debret of scenes in Brazil, some of which were incorporated into his Voyage Pittoresque, see Jean Baptiste Debret, Viagem Pitoresca e Historica ao Brasil (Editora Itatiaia Limitada, Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 1989; a reprint of the 1954 Paris edition, edited by R. De Castro Maya).
  • Harbour Street, Kingston

    This street scene of Kingston, Jamaica. view looking eastward. James Hakewill (1778–1843) was an English architect known for illustrated publications. Several of his works relating to Jamaica can be found in T. Barringer, G. Forrester, and B. Martinez-Ruiz, Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and his Worlds (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art in association with Yale University Press, 2007), passim.
  • A Free Negress and Other Market-Women

    This image shows a group of women selling a variety of fruits and vegetables in containers and baskets at a market in Rio de Janeiro. An infant sits off to the left side. James Henderson (c. 1783-1848) was a British traveler who traveled all through Brazil between 1819 and 1820. He made all of his sketches from his observations.
Advanced search