Domestic Servants & Free People of Color

  • Mulatto Female and Clothing Style, Peru, 1780s

    Identified as Mulatta, the drawing shows woman dressed in a billowing skirt, patterned sleeveless blouse, stockings, and shoes with buckles. This and hundreds of other drawings were done by unidentified Native Americans during the 1780s and were commissioned by the Spanish Bishop Baltazar Jaime Martinez Companon during his pastoral visit to the region of Trujillo in northern Peru. The drawings, spread over nine volumes, are of Spaniards, Native Americans, plants and animals, as well plans and maps of the region. Only Vol. 2 contains a few pictures of blacks, the index to the volume giving very sparse information on each drawing. (See other images Trujillo on this website.)
  • Mulatto Man and Clothing Style, Peru, 1780s

    Drawing simply identified as Mulatto shows a man in what appears to be formal dress, breeches, shoes with buckles, etc. This and hundreds of other drawings were done by unidentified Native Americans during the 1780s and were commissioned by the Spanish Bishop Baltazar Jaime Martinez Companon during his pastoral visit to the region of Trujillo in northern Peru. The drawings, spread over nine volumes, are of Spaniards, Native Americans, plants and animals, as well plans and maps of the region. Only Vol. 2 contains a few pictures of blacks, the index to the volume giving very sparse information on each drawing. (See other images Trujillo on this website.)
  • Coachman, Peru, 1780s

    Drawing identified as Espanolas en calesa, shows a black (or Native American) man on a horse, pulling a coach with two European women inside. This and hundreds of other drawings were done by unidentified Native Americans during the 1780s and were commissioned by the Spanish Bishop Baltazar Jaime Martinez Companon during his pastoral visit to the region of Trujillo in northern Peru. The drawings, spread over nine volumes, are of Spaniards, Native Americans, plants and animals, as well plans and maps of the region. Only Vol. 2 contains a few pictures of blacks, the index to the volume giving very sparse information on each drawing. (See other images Trujillo on this website.)
  • Coachman with Horse and Carriage, Lima, Peru, 1748

    Captioned A calash much used at Lima & all over Peru, shows the calash or two wheel horse-drawn carriage; a fully liveried black coachman rides the horse.
  • Clothing Styles, Lima, Peru, 1748

    A Creole-Lady veiled, going to Church, shows two black female servants (slaves?) with full length skirts and petticoats and turbaned heads (or head ties), accompanying an elaborately dressed European woman to church
  • Clothing Styles of Women, Lima, Peru, 1778

    Caption of illustration: A woman of Lima in full dress, a D[itto] behind her in undress, a Spaniard dresst as they are in Peru, and a Mulatto and Negro servant; the clothing worn by these people is described on pp. 409-411. The illustrations were constructed for this volume and are not based on eye-witness drawings; author's account was derived from various sources, including Ulloa, Canamine. A reversed version of this illustration is also in Il Gazzettiere Americano (Livorno, 1763), vol. 2, facing p. 201.-
  • Clothing Style, Female Servant, Lima, Peru, 1805

    A hand colored engraving, captioned Female domestic of Lima of the Class of Quarterons, shows the clothing style.
  • Domestic Servants, Brazil, 1816-1831

    Titled Une Dame Bréilienne dans son intérieur (A Brasilian lady inside her home), shows three black servants attending a white (?) woman and her daughter; two black infants are crawling on the floor. The engravings in this book were taken from drawings made by Debret during his residence in Brazil from 1816 to 1831. For watercolors by Debret of scenes in Brazil, some of which were incorporated into his Voyage Pittoresque, see Jean Baptiste Debret, Viagem Pitoresca e Historica ao Brasil (Editora Itatiaia Limitada, Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 1989; a reprint of the 1954 Paris edition, edited by R. De Castro Maya).
  • Clothing Styles of Men and Women, Peru, 1748

    Artist's rendition of various types of people and animals ( e.g., vicuna, llama) in colonial Peru, each type shown and identified by a letter, e.g., D, mulata (mulatto woman); E, Negro criado (black servant); F, Mulata, aelmodo qandan a Caballo (mulatto woman riding a horse). In the background (G) is a coach or calash used in Lima. On pp. 70-71, the author discusses and compares the labor performed by blacks, mulattoes and Europeans.
  • Clothing Styles, Quito, Peru, 1805

    Hand colored engraving, shows a man and woman wearing cloaks and hats and captioned Mulattoes of Quito.
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