Plantation Scenes, Slave Settlements & Houses

  • Whitney Estate, Clarendon

    This image shows the Whitney plantation with slave houses on the right. James Hakewill (1778–1843) was an English architect known for illustrated publications. Several of his works relating to Jamaica can be found in T. Barringer, G. Forrester, and B. Martinez-Ruiz, Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and his Worlds (New Haven : Yale Center for British Art in association with Yale University Press, 2007), passim.
  • Spring Garden Estate, St. Georges

    This image shows a seaside sugar plantation, factory and slave houses. There are also a group of field slaves apparently returning from work and a white supervisor on horseback. James Hakewill (1778–1843) was an English architect known for illustrated publications. Several of his works relating to Jamaica can be found in T. Barringer, G. Forrester, and B. Martinez-Ruiz, Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and his Worlds (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art in association with Yale University Press, 2007), passim.
  • Trinity Estate

    This image depicts a gang of field slaves carrying agricultural tools walking along a road. There are also various plantation buildings, including the manor house, sugar works and windmill. James Hakewill (1778–1843) was an English architect known for illustrated publications. Several of his works relating to Jamaica can be found in T. Barringer, G. Forrester, and B. Martinez-Ruiz, Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and his Worlds (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art in association with Yale University Press, 2007), passim.
  • Port Maria

    This image shows a plantation yard with slave houses strung out along a hillside. Two shepherds tend to livestock in the foreground. James Hakewill (1778–1843) was an English architect known for illustrated publications. Several of his works relating to Jamaica can be found in T. Barringer, G. Forrester, and B. Martinez-Ruiz, Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and his Worlds (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art in association with Yale University Press, 2007), passim.
  • Montpelier Estate, St. James's

    This image shows the slave houses and settlement in the upper right, amidst trees and behind the sugar boiling house with a chimney. James Hakewill (1778–1843) was an English architect known for illustrated publications. Several of his works relating to Jamaica can be found in T. Barringer, G. Forrester, and B. Martinez-Ruiz, Art and Emancipation in Jamaica: Isaac Mendes Belisario and his Worlds (New Haven: Yale Center for British Art in association with Yale University Press, 2007), passim.
  • Plantation Scene a Negro Hut

    This image shows a wood-shingled log cabin with a woman outside washing clothes in a tub, while children played and a man carried goods on his head. Although post-emancipation, this scene evokes the late slave period. Charles Carleton Coffin (1823-1896) was one of the most well-known newspaper correspondents of the American Civil War. Long was loyal to the Union and opposed slavery.
  • Negro Quarters

    This engraving shows several slave houses with chimneys and small group of people dancing in front in Louisiana. Harper's Magazine (also called Harper's) is a monthly magazine of literature, politics, culture, finance and the arts.
  • A Planter's Mansion

    This image depicts a plantation estate house depicting enslaved workers in a field in the foreground. Richards described how "the inhabitants [of a rice plantation] make a large community of themselves alone. The mansion of the planter with its numerous out-houses, the residence of the overseer, and the long streets of negro cabins, give to a single settlement the aspect of a large and busy village or town. . . [slave cabins] are usually placed, at suitable intervals, in rows, or double rows, with a wide street between" (Richards, pp. 730, 732). Thomas Addison Richards (1820–1900) was a British landscape artist, who migrated with his family to the United States in 1831. The family first settled in New York, then South Carolina and finally Georgia by 1837. Richards made a career of sketching Georgia’s scenery. Harper's Magazine (also called Harper's) is a monthly magazine of literature, politics, culture, finance and the arts.
  • A Spring Scene Near Richmond, Virginia

    This image shows a man and woman in front of their cabin with a chimney planting a kitchen garden and feeding chickens. Although post-emancipation, this scene is evocative of the late antebellum period. Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization was an American political magazine based in New York City and published by Harper & Brothers from 1857 until 1916. It featured foreign and domestic news, fiction, essays on many subjects and humor, alongside illustrations. It covered the American Civil War extensively, including many illustrations of events from the war.
  • Waiting for Plantation Food Rations, Cuba, ca. 1866

    The author, who visited Cuba ca. 1866, describes a large sugar plantation, or estate. The bulk of the hands used in the general operations of the place, cutting cane, plowing, etc. are known as the gente, or people. They are pretty well taken care of as regards food . . . at least in quantity . The clothing . . . is limited, the children usually going about stark naked, the women with only a calico dress on, and the men wearing only their pants. it is rather a novel sight, at the eleven o'clock halt from work, to see these people gathering for their rations, which are served out to them once a day (pp. 360-61). Person in right foreground is playing a guitar. In its digital gallery, the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture (New York City), shows a photograph (stereograph) of a plantation view in Cuba (image 1657420) that is clearly related to the image shown here -- which was probably based on the photograph (thanks to Roberta Kilkenny for bringing this to our attention).
  • Timber Estate, British Guiana (Demerara), 1834

    Caption, Mibiri Creek, Demerara River. Mr. Edmonstone's Wood Cutting Establishment. The author sketched this scene while visiting this place. In left foreground, two male slaves are cutting wood, next to them are their wives and children. In the very lower right hand corner is the boat-house, above it the main dwelling house, and on the top of the hill were the Negro huts, with some cocoa-nut trees (pp. 187-188).
  • Coffee Plantation, Saint Domingue (St. Domingue, Haiti), 1798

    Settlements of Mr. As estate in St. Domingo, shows layout of a coffee estate, with each of its major features indicated by a letter. For example, A, the dwelling house & coffee store and L the Negro houses. The proximity of the slave houses to the owner's house reflects the settlement pattern found throughout the West Indies on sugar plantations. This work was written during the brief period that Britain occupied St. Domingue, and its author hoped for the restoration of the pre-revolutionary order.
  • Slave Houses/Cabins, U.S. South, 1862-65

    Captioned, Got any pies for sale Aunty? shows a Union soldier inquiring at the door of a slave (?) house; shows double wood house, with wood shingles and chimney; an iron pot in the foreground.
  • Plantation Slaves, Beaufort, South Carolina, 1862

    The Prints and Photograph Division of the Library of Congress has two slightly different negatives of this scene by Timothy H. O'Sullivan, the Civl War photographer. Sullivan visited Smith's plantation in 1862 and made several photographs of its enslaved population. In general he left no records of his experiences and photographs, and the only identifiers are to be found on the notes or captions he scribbled on his negatives; in this particular case, on the negative sleeve O'Sullivan wrote group on J.J. Smith's Plantation, Beaufort, S.C. For details on O'Sullivan and his photographs, see James Horan, Timothy O'Sullivan: America's Forgotten Photographer (New York, 1966) and Joel Snyder, American Frontiers: The Photographs of Timothy H. O'Sullivan (New York, 1981). See also image NW0243 on this website.
  • Sugar Plantation Mill Yard, Cuba, 1853

    Captioned, A Sugar Estate, in the vicinity of Guanajay. Shows the slave houses on the left, owner's mansion in center, steam-powered sugar mill on the right; slaves are carrying canes to the mill. Accompanies an article, Three Weeks in Cuba, by an artist, wherein the author describes his visit to this estate and the buildings involved in sugar manufacture; he also describes the process of sugar manufacture as well as the treatment of the enslaved. The sugar harvest season, he writes, is one of severe labor for the negroes, and many of them compelled to work at least eighteen hours each day, suffer much from being overtasked. The larger portion of the active slaves are natives of Africa . . . .The lash is laid on without a stint, for the most trivial offenses, and often only as a spur to labor (p. 168). LOC has inscribed on photo HM vol. 6-1852, but this is an error; the vol. date is 1853. See also image reference Album-26.
  • Slave house or cabin, U.S. South, 1862-65

    Captioned, The Reliable Contraband, shows plank/frame house, with wood shingled roof and stone and brick chimney; Union soldiers' small encampment in background. Fugitive slaves from the South who escaped to Union lines were called contraband, that is, confiscated enemy property. The image is a German chromo-lithographic copy of Frederic Mialhe's "Vivienda de Pescadores" showing Nuevitas, Camagüey, Cuba. See also Album-23.
  • Negro Habitations

    This illustration of a thatched roof hut has two enslave people out front doing chores. Hazard explained "the house itself was a substantial wooden building in the usual fashion of the country, with several rooms, the main one being filled with quite a number of women of all ages, busying themselves by candlelight in shelling the native white and read bean" (p. 368). Samuel Hazard (1834-1876) was an American publisher and bookseller from Pennsylvania, who collected engravings and prints. After joining the union army, he rose through the ranks as brevet major until he resigned on surgeon's certificate of disability in 1865. After, he traveled to Cuba and Santo Domingo as a correspondent of the Philadelphia Press during protracted conflict related to the decolonization of the Spanish Caribbean. See image Hazard3.
  • A Native Hut

    This image depicts a circular hut with a thatched roof. According to Hazard, "the wattle-and-daub construction and thatched roof, apparently with palm fronds, was a very common house type throughout the Caribbean at this period" (p, 284). Samuel Hazard (1834-1876) was an American publisher and bookseller from Pennsylvania, who collected engravings and prints. After joining the union army, he rose through the ranks as brevet major until he resigned on surgeon's certificate of disability in 1865. After, he traveled to Cuba and Santo Domingo as a correspondent of the Philadelphia Press during protracted conflict related to the decolonization of the Spanish Caribbean. See also image Hazard4.
  • Negro Village in Georgia

    This image shows a row of slave houses with children playing in front and adults engaged in various activities, including driving oxcarts. The illustration accompanies a discussion of events preceding the Civil War and what transpired in Georgia, but the illustration, which apparently is based on an artist's imagination, is not discussed in the text.
  • Slave House and Cooking, Guadeloupe, French West Indies, late 1840s

    Captioned, Paysage a la Guadeloupe, this engraving is based on a drawing by Karl Girardet. Shown is a rural scene, with two wood houses (wattle and daub ?) with thatched roofs in the background and two blacks cooking in an iron (?) pot over an open fire in the foreground; a white onlooker is on the right. The illustration accompanies a brief article on the history of slavery in the French West Indies which ended in 1848 (pp. 194-195).
  • Ingenio San José de la Angosta

    "Sugar Plantation of San José de la Angosta" (caption translation). This image shows central or yard area of the plantation with steam-driven sugar factory, main house, various outbuildings; houses of enslaved in upper right and people reaping cane and loading it into oxcarts in lower left. The accompanying text gives information on location, ownership, technical features of sugar production and similar data. Justo German Cantero (1815-1871) was born in Trinidad, Cuba. The image shown here is from the 1984 reprint which only reproduces, on a smaller scale, 13 of the 28 colored lithographs found in the original 1857 edition. Images in the latter can be viewed on the British Library website, Images Online.
  • Ingenio La Amistad

    "Sugar Plantation La Amistad" (caption translation). This image shows a plantation yard, steam mill, great house, etc.; wattle-and-daub thatched houses of the enslaved are on the left, and workers in the field in lower right. The accompanying text gives information on location, ownership, technical features of sugar production (the estate specialized in the production of muscavado sugar and rum) and similar data. Justo German Cantero (1815-1871) was born in Trinidad, Cuba. The image shown here is from the 1984 reprint which only reproduces, on a smaller scale, 13 of the 28 colored lithographs found in the original 1857 edition. Images in the latter can be viewed on the British Library website, Images Online.
  • Casa de calderas del ingenio Asunción

    "Boiling House at the Sugar Plantation Asunción" (caption translation). This image hows interior of sugar factory with machinery and enslaved laborers engaged in various tasks. The accompanying text gives information on the plantation's location, ownership, technical features of sugar production and similar data. There were 400 slaves on this plantation. Justo German Cantero (1815-1871) was born in Trinidad, Cuba. The image shown here is from the 1984 reprint which only reproduces, on a smaller scale, 13 of the 28 colored lithographs found in the original 1857 edition. Images in the latter can be viewed on the British Library website, Images Online.
  • Ingenio La Ponina

    "Sugar Plantation La Ponina" (caption translation). This image shows the interior of a sugar factory with enslaved workers at various tasks. They are dressed in white shirts and trousers. The accompanying text gives information on location, ownership, technical features of sugar production and similar data. The plantation had 500 laborers, including enslaved Africans and Chinese wage-laborers. These groups were housed separately, the slaves in a barracks of about 7.1 square meters. Justo German Cantero (1815-1871) was born in Trinidad, Cuba. The image shown here is from the 1984 reprint which only reproduces, on a smaller scale, 13 of the 28 colored lithographs found in the original 1857 edition. Images in the latter can be viewed on the British Library website, Images Online.
  • Ingenio Flor de Cuba

    "Sugar Plantation Flor de Cuba" (caption translation). This image shows the interior of a sugar factory with machinery and slaves engaged in various tasks including boiling in large vats. The accompany text gives information on location, ownership, technical features of sugar production and similar data. In 1857, the plantation had 409 enslaved Africans and 179 Chinese wage-laborers. Justo German Cantero (1815-1871) was born in Trinidad, Cuba. The image shown here is from the 1984 reprint which only reproduces, on a smaller scale, 13 of the 28 colored lithographs found in the original 1857 edition. Images in the latter can be viewed on the British Library website, Images Online.
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