Untitled Image (Iron Shackles)
Clarkson explained that "he purchased these items in a shop in Liverpool and that they had been used on slave ships. A, pair of handcuffs for men (right wrist of one person was padlocked to left wrist of another); B, leg shackles for men (right ankle of one is fastened to left ankle of another); C,D,E, the thumbscrew used for punishing slaves (The thumbs are put into this instrument through the two circular holes at the top of it. By turning a key, a bar rises up by means of a screw from C to D, and the pressure upon them becomes painful. By turning it further you may make the blood start from the ends of them . . .); F,G,H, speculum oris or mouth opener," which was used by surgeons aboard slave ships for force feeding (vol. 1, p. 375-377). The same illustrations appear in the 1808 Philadelphia edition, but between p. 300 and 301.
Thomas Clarkson, The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave-Trade by the British parliament (London, 1808), vol. 1, between pp. 374-75. Special Collections Department, University of Virginia Library.
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"Untitled Image (Iron Shackles)", Slavery Images: A Visual Record of the African Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Early African Diaspora, accessed February 27, 2020, http://www.slaveryimages.org/s/slaveryimages/item/2619