Punishments for Runaways, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1850s
Ilustration shows three slaves, one wearing a log and chain around his neck, another an iron collar; the third wears a tin mask. The first two items denote runaways, but the mask is placed on city slaves to prevent them from drinking strong liquor and on the country-slave to prevent eating clay, to which many of the field-negroes are addicted (p. 132). The same illustration appears in later editions of Kidder's work, e.g., 1866 (6th ed.), 1879 (9th ed.). For other illustrations of the tin-mask in Brazil, see images ewbank3, debret-2, magasin1 on this website.
Daniel P. Kidder, Brazil and the Brazilians, portrayed in historical and descriptive sketches (Philadelphia, 1857), p. 131. (Copy in Special Collections Department, University of Virginia Library)
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South America--Brazil--Rio de Janeiro
"Punishments for Runaways, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1850s", Slavery Images: A Visual Record of the African Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Early African Diaspora, accessed February 21, 2020, http://www.slaveryimages.org/s/slaveryimages/item/2890