Under the Portuguese Flag
Based on a sketch by Sir John Willoughby and engraved by G. Durand, this image depicts a slave coffle in the Portuguese districts of Southeastern Africa. Accompanies an article of the same title, the first of three articles dealing with slavery in this area. In November 1891, Willoughby visited a region up to 500 miles inland from the coast. He witnessed "scenes of violence and oppression. On one occasion, he saw "two gangs of slaves, each consisting of of a dozen women, mostly with little children on their backs, and all chained together by means of heavy lengths of chains attached to iron rings round their necks" (p. 275). Also cited in Daniel Mannix, Black Cargoes (New York, 1962), after p. 146, but he gives a misleading caption and erroneously dates this engraving to the 1870s.
The Graphic: An Illustrated Weekly Newspaper (London), vol. 45 (1892), title page
Image is in the public domain. Metadata is available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International.
"Under the Portuguese Flag", Slavery Images: A Visual Record of the African Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Early African Diaspora, accessed February 17, 2020, http://www.slaveryimages.org/s/slaveryimages/item/423